本文摘要:Scientists have warned that rapid strides in the development of artificial intelligence and robotics threatens the prospect of mass unemployment, affecting everyone from drivers to sex workers.科学家们警告称之为,人工智能和机器人技术的狂奔发展有可能引致大规模失业,影响从司机到性工作者的各行各业劳动者。


Scientists have warned that rapid strides in the development of artificial intelligence and robotics threatens the prospect of mass unemployment, affecting everyone from drivers to sex workers.科学家们警告称之为,人工智能和机器人技术的狂奔发展有可能引致大规模失业,影响从司机到性工作者的各行各业劳动者。Intelligent machines will soon replace human workers in all sectors of the economy, senior computer scientists told the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Washington at the weekend.周末在华盛顿举办的美国科学理事长(AAAS)会议上,资深计算机科学家回应,智能机器迅速将在各个经济部门代替人类劳动者。“We are approaching the time when machines will be able to outperform humans at almost any task,” said Moshe Vardi, computer science professor at Rice University in Texas. “Society needs to confront this question before it is upon us: if machines are capable of doing almost any work humans can do, what will humans do?“我们正在相似这样一个时刻,机器将需要在完全所有任务上打破人类,”德克萨斯州莱斯大学(Rice University)计算机科学教授摩西瓦迪(Moshe Vardi)回应,“在这个时刻到来之前,社会必须付出代价一个问题:如果人类需要做到的工作,机器完全都需要做到,那么人类该做到些什么?“A typical answer is that we will be free to pursue leisure activities,” Prof Vardi said. “[But] I do not find the prospect of leisure-only life appealing. I believe that work is essential to human wellbeing.”“一个典型的问是,我们将权利地专门从事休闲活动,”瓦迪教授回应,“但是我不实在只有休闲娱乐的人生前景有吸引力。我坚信工作对于人类的福祉是不可或缺的。

”“AI is moving rapidly from academic research into the real world,” said Bart Selman, professor of computer science at Cornell University. “Computers are starting to ‘hear’ and ‘see’ as humans do… can start to move and operate among us autonomously.” He said companies such as Google, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft were scaling up investments in AI systems to billions of dollars a year.“人工智能于是以从学术研究较慢转入现实世界,”康奈尔大学(Cornell University)计算机科学教授巴特帠尔曼(Bart Selman)回应,“计算机于是以开始像人类一样‘听得’和‘看’……系统可以自律地移动和操作者,跻身人类行列。”他回应,谷歌(Google)、Facebook、IBM以及微软公司(Microsoft)等公司争相增大对人工智能系统的投资,使其超过每年数十亿美元。Professors Vardi and Selman said governments — and society as a whole — were not facing up to the acceleration of AI and robotics research. Prof Selman helped draft an open letter issued last year by the Future of Life Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, urging policymakers to explore the risks associated with increasingly intelligent machines.瓦迪教授和塞尔曼教授都回应,政府以及整个社会没认清人工智能和机器人研究的加快。塞尔曼教授去年曾协助草拟由马萨诸塞州剑桥的生命未来研究所(Future of Life Institute)收到的一封公开信,呼吁政策制定者探察智能含量更加低的机器所带给的风险。


Among the 10,000 or so signatories to the letter is Elon Musk, the tech entrepreneur whose company Tesla Motors has a large AI research programme aimed at developing self-driving cars.这封公开信有约1万人亲笔签名,还包括高科技企业家埃隆氠斯克(Elon Musk),他旗下的特斯拉汽车公司(Tesla Motors)有一个大规模人工智能研究项目,目的研发自动驾驶汽车。Mr Musk will fund research at Cornell University “on keeping AI beneficial to humans”, said Prof Selman. The project will predict whether and, if so when, “super-intelligence” — all-round superiority of machine to human intelligence — might be achieved.塞尔曼教授说道,马斯克将资助康奈尔大学以“保证人工智能教化于人类”为课题的研究。该项目将预测“超级智能”(机器相对于人类智慧的全方位优势)能否构建?如果答案是认同的,它将在何时构建?According to Prof Selman, one of the fastest advancing areas of AI is machine vision, and particularly facial recognition. “Facebook can recognise faces better than any of us,” he said. Machine vision is key to the self-driving vehicles that scientists predict will take over our roads in the next 25 years. Prof Vardi said automated driving would cut accidents by 90 per cent or more, compared with vehicles driven by error-prone people.据塞尔曼教授讲解,人工智能进展最慢的领域之一是机器视觉,特别是在是人脸识别。



瓦迪教授称之为,比起更容易错误的人类司机,自动驾驶将增加90%或更加多的事故。“With so many lives saved and injuries prevented, it would be hard morally for anyone to argue against it,” he said. Yet around 10 per cent of all US jobs involve driving a vehicle, he added, “and most of those will disappear”.“如果需要解救那么多人命,避免那么多伤势,反对者在道德上将不会很难说得过去,”他说道。

然而,他补足说道,美国10%左右的工作岗位牵涉到驾驶员车辆,“这些工作岗位中的大多数将不会消失”。Prof Vardi said it would be hard to think of any jobs that would not be vulnerable to robotics and AI — even sex workers. “Are you going to bet against sex robots?” he asked. “I’m not.”瓦迪教授称之为,面临日臻完善的机器人技术和人工智能,很难想象有任何工作会面对消失风险,就连性工作者也不值得注意。